This guide is designed to support the citation and reference needs of USSA students, staff, and faculty. The 7th edition of the manual does make distinctions between formatting certain components for academic use over publication. This guide will distinguish student/academic formatting where applicable.
This guide is designed as a "quick" reference to common APA citation, reference and formatting criteria. When in doubt, we encourage users to consult with the APA publication manual or APA website for further clarification as the authority on formatting.
Citations and references serve an important role at the academic and professional level. They tell the readers of your writing:
Why Should I Cite?
Citing your sources
When Should I Cite?
Citations are required whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize another person's work.
"Some people use the words citation and reference interchangeably. Are they really the same thing? What is the difference?
Citations and references are teammates. When you cite a source, you are using a citation and a reference.
Citation (In-Text) Reference (at end of paper)
(Smith, 2014, p. 3) Smith, A. R. (2014). Sports analysis in esports. McMillan Press, New York.
Remember, a common mistake made by students is to have in-text citations for resources that do not appear on the References Page because the student has forgotten to place the source on the Reference Page. Always check to make sure you have references for every in-text citation.
Also, don't include references on your References page that you did not quote, paraphrase, or summarize. That is called padding your bibliography and is not an acceptable academic practice.